Bathroom bill – Wikipedia

A bathroom bill is the common name for legislation or a statute that defines access to public toilets by gender (restrooms)—or transgender individual. Bathroom bills affect access to sex-segregated public facilities for an individual based on a determination of their sex as defined in some specific way—such as their sex as assigned at birth, their sex as listed on their birth certificate, or the sex that corresponds to their gender identity.[1] A bathroom bill can either be inclusive or exclusive of transgender individuals, depending on the aforementioned definition of their sex. Unisex public toilets are one option to overcome this controversy.

Critics of bills which exclude transgender individuals from restrooms which conform to their gender identity argue that they do not make public restrooms any safer for cisgender (non-transgender) people, and that they make public restrooms less safe for both transgender people and gender non-conforming cisgender people.[2][3][4] Additionally, critics claim there have been no cases of a transgender person attacking a cisgender person in a public restroom,[2][5] although there has been at least one isolated incident of voyeurism in a fitting room.[6] By comparison, a much larger percentage of transgender people have been verbally, physically, and sexually harassed or attacked by cisgender people in public facilities.[7] For these reasons the controversy over transgender bathroom access has been labeled a moral panic.[8]

Proponents say such legislation is necessary to maintain privacy, protect what they claim to be an innate sense of modesty held by most cisgender people, prevent voyeurism, assault, molestation, and rape,[9] and retain psychological comfort.[10][11]

One bathroom bill, the Public Facilities Privacy & Security Act in North Carolina, was approved as a law in 2016, although portions of the measure were later repealed in 2017 as part of a compromise between the Democratic governor and Republican-controlled Legislature.

Also in 2016, guidance was issued by the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education stating that schools which receive federal money must treat a student’s gender identity as their sex (for example, in regard to bathrooms).[12] However, this policy was revoked in 2017.[12]

Public perception[edit]

Public opinion regarding “transgender bathroom rights” in the United States is mixed, see summary table below.

Date(s) conducted Support laws that require transgender individuals to use bathrooms that correspond to their birth sex Oppose laws that require transgender individuals to use bathrooms that correspond to their birth sex Don’t know / NA Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
May 3, 2017 – May 7, 2017 48% 45% 7% 4% 1,011 adults American adults Gallup Cellphone and landline phones
March 2017 40% 40% ? ? YouGov ?
February 10, 2017 – February, 19, 2017 39% 53% 2.6% 2,031 adults Public Religion Research Institute Live interviews via RDD telephones and cell phones
August 16, 2016 – September 12, 2016, 2016 46% 51% 3% 2.4% 4,538 respondents Pew Research Web and mail
May 4, 2016 – May 8, 2016 50% 40%
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Psychodidae – Wikipedia

Psychodidae, called drain flies, sink flies, filter flies,[1] or sewer gnats is a family of true flies. Some genera have short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a “furry” moth-like appearance, hence one of their common names, moth flies.[1] Members of the sub-family Phlebotominae which are hematophagous (feed on blood) may be called sand flies in some countries, although this term is also used for other unrelated flies.

There are more than 2,600 described species worldwide, most of them native to the humid tropics. This makes them one of the most diverse families of their order.[2] Drain flies sometimes inhabit plumbing drains and sewage systems, where they are harmless, but may be a persistent annoyance.[3]

Life cycle[edit]

The larvae of the subfamilies Psychodinae, Sycoracinae and Horaiellinae live in aquatic to semi-terrestrial or sludge-based habitats, including bathroom sinks,[4] where they feed on bacteria and can become problematic. The larvae of the most commonly encountered species are nearly transparent with a non-retractable black head and can sometimes be seen moving along the moist edges of crevices in shower stalls or bathtubs or submerged in toilet water. The larval form of the moth flies is usually between 4 and 5 mm (0.16 and 0.20 in) long, and is shaped like a long, thin, somewhat flattened cylinder. The body lacks prolegs, but the body segments are divided into a series of rings called annuli (singular is annulus). Some of these rings will have characteristic plates on the dorsal side. The larval thorax is not significantly larger than its abdomen, giving it a more “worm-like” appearance than that of most aquatic insect larvae.

In some species, the larvae can secure themselves to surfaces of their environment using “attachment disks” on their ventral side. Like mosquito larvae, they cannot absorb oxygen through water, and instead breathe via a small dark tube (a spiracle) on their posterior end — they must regularly reach the surface to obtain oxygen. The larval stage lasts for between 9 and 15 days, depending on species, temperature, and environment. There are four instar stages.[3][5][6]
In small numbers, the larvae are sometimes considered beneficial, as their strong jaws can cut through the hair and sludge waste in drains which might otherwise form clogs. However, unless this sludge layer is removed entirely, the adult flies will continue to find it and lay more eggs.

While the biting midges also have larvae that have no prolegs and which also have attachment disks, the larvae of the netwinged midges can be distinguished from those of the moth fly by the multiple deep lateral constrictions of the latter.[5]

The pupal stage lasts between 20 and 40 hours. During this stage, the insect does not feed, but stays submerged near the water surface, still breathing through a spiracle, and soon metamorphoses into an adult fly, which bursts through a seam in the pupal casing and emerges onto the water’s surface.

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Bathroom – Wikipedia

room for personal hygiene activities, such as showering

Bathroom decorated with white-and-blue tiles on the floor and turquoise tiles on the walls

A bathroom is a room for personal hygiene activities, generally containing a toilet, a sink (basin) and either a bathtub, a shower, or both. In some countries, the toilet is usually included in the bathroom, whereas other cultures consider this insanitary or impractical, and give that fixture a room of its own. The toilet may even be outside of the home in the case of pit latrines. It may also be a question of available space in the house whether the toilet is included in the bathroom or not.

Historically, bathing was often a collective activity, which took place in public baths. In some countries the shared social aspect of cleansing the body is still important, as for example with sento in Japan and the “Turkish bath” (also known by other names) throughout the Islamic world.

In North American English the word “bathroom” may be used to mean any room containing a toilet, even a public toilet (although in the United States this is more commonly called a restroom and in Canada a washroom).

Variations and terminology[edit]

Illustration of a bathroom from the early 20th century, in which appear a bath tub, two towels, a toilet, a sink and two mirrors

The term for the place used to clean the body varies around the English-speaking world, as does the design of the room itself. A full bathroom is generally understood to contain a bath or shower (or both), a toilet, and a sink. An en suite bathroom or en suite shower room is attached to, and only accessible from, a bedroom. A family bathroom, in British estate agent terminology, is a full bathroom not attached to a bedroom, but with its door opening onto a corridor. A Jack and Jill bathroom (or connected bathroom) is situated between and usually shared by the occupants of two separate bedrooms. It may also have two wash basins.[1][2] A wetroom is a waterproof room usually equipped with a shower; it is designed to eliminate moisture damage and is compatible with underfloor heating systems.

In the United States, there is a lack of a single definition. This commonly results in discrepancies between advertised and actual number of baths in real estate listings. Bathrooms are generally categorized as “master bathroom”, containing a shower and a bathtub that is adjoining to the largest bedroom; a “full bathroom” (or “full bath”), containing four plumbing fixtures: a toilet and sink, and either a bathtub with a shower, or a bathtub and a separate shower stall; “half bath” (or “powder room”) containing just a toilet and sink; and “3/4 bath” containing toilet, sink, and

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Home improvement – Wikipedia

The concept of home improvement, home renovation, or remodeling is the process of renovating or making additions to one’s home. Home improvement can consist of projects that upgrade an existing home interior (such as electrical and plumbing), exterior (masonry, concrete, siding, roofing), or other improvements to the property (i.e. garden work or garage maintenance/additions).

Types of home improvement[edit]

While “home improvement” often refers to building projects that alter the structure of an existing home, it can also include improvements to lawns, gardens, and outdoor structures, such as gazebos and garages. It also encompasses maintenance, repair, and general servicing tasks. Home improvement projects generally have one or more of the following goals:[citation needed]

Comfort[edit]

Maintenance and repair[edit]

Maintenance projects can include:

Additional space[edit]

Additional living space may be added by:

  • Turning marginal areas into livable spaces such as turning basements into recrooms, home theaters, or home offices – or attics into spare bedrooms.
  • Extending one’s house with rooms added to the side of one’s home or, sometimes, extra levels to the original roof. Such a new unit of construction is called an “add-on”.[1]

Saving energy[edit]

Homeowners may reduce utility costs with:

Safety and preparedness[edit]

Emergency preparedness safety measures such as:

Home improvement industry[edit]

Home or residential renovation is an almost $300 billion industry in the United States,[3] and a $48 billion industry in Canada.[4][full citation needed] The average cost per project is $3,000 in the United States and $11,000–15,000 in Canada.

Professional home improvement is ancient and goes back to the beginning of recorded civilization. One example is Sergius Orata, who in the 1st century B.C. is said by the writer Vitruvius (in his famous book De architectura) to have invented the hypocaust. The hypocaust is an underfloor heating system that was used throughout the Roman empire in villas of the wealthy. He is said to have become wealthy himself by buying villas at a low price, adding spas and his newly invented hypocaust, and reselling them at higher prices.[5]

Renovation contractors[edit]

Perhaps the most important or visible professionals in the renovation industry are renovation contractors or skilled trades. These are the builders that have specialized credentials, licensing and experience to perform renovation services in specific municipalities.

While there is a fairly large ‘grey market’ of unlicensed companies, there are those that have membership in a reputable association and/or are accredited by a professional organization. Homeowners are recommended to perform checks such as verifying license and insurance and checking business references prior to hiring a contractor to work on their house.

Aggregators[edit]

Aggregators are companies that bundle home improvement service offers and act as intermediary agency between service providers and customers.

In popular culture[edit]

Home improvement was popularized on television in 1979 with the premiere of This Old House

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Home Improvement (TV series) – Wikipedia

American television sitcom

Home Improvement is an American television sitcom starring Tim Allen that aired on ABC from September 17, 1991 to May 25, 1999 with a total of 204 half-hour episodes spanning eight seasons. The series was created by Matt Williams, Carmen Finestra, and David McFadzean. In the 1990s, it was one of the most watched sitcoms in the United States, winning many awards. The series launched Tim Allen’s acting career and was the start of the television career of Pamela Anderson, who was part of the recurring cast for the first two seasons.[1]

Show background[edit]

Based on the stand-up comedy of Tim Allen, Home Improvement made its debut on ABC on September 17, 1991,[2] and was one of the highest-rated sitcoms for almost the entire decade. It went to No. 1 in the ratings during the 1993–1994 season, the same year Allen had the No. 1 book (Don’t Stand Too Close to a Naked Man) and film (The Santa Clause).[3]

Beginning in season 2, Home Improvement began each episode with a cold open, which features the show’s logo during the teaser. From season 4 until the end of the series in 1999, an anthropomorphic version of the logo was used in different types of animation.[4]

Episodes[edit]

Plot details and storylines[edit]

Taylor family[edit]

The series centers on the Taylor family, which consists of Tim (Tim Allen), his wife Jill (Patricia Richardson) and their three children: the oldest child, Brad (Zachery Ty Bryan), the middle child, Randy (Jonathan Taylor Thomas) and youngest child, Mark (Taran Noah Smith). The Taylors live in suburban Detroit, and have a neighbor named Wilson (Earl Hindman) who is often the go-to guy for solving the Taylors’ problems.

Tim is a stereotypical American male, who loves power tools, cars, and sports. An avid fan of the Detroit professional sports teams, Tim wears Lions, Pistons, Red Wings, and Tigers clothing in numerous instances, and many plots revolve around the teams. He is a former salesman for the fictional Binford Tool company, and is very much a cocky, overambitious, accident-prone know-it-all. Witty but flippant, Tim jokes around a lot, even at inappropriate times, much to the dismay of his wife. However, Tim can sometimes be serious when necessary. Jill, Tim’s wife, is loving and sophisticated, but not exempt from dumb moves herself. In later seasons she returns to college to study psychology. Family life is boisterous for the Taylors with the two oldest children, Brad and Randy, tormenting the much younger Mark, all while continually testing and pestering each other. Such play happened especially throughout the first three seasons, and was revisited only occasionally until Jonathan Taylor Thomas left at the beginning of the eighth season. During the show’s final season, Brad and Mark became much closer due to Randy’s absence.

Brad, popular and athletic, was often the moving factor, who engaged before thinking, a tendency which regularly

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Richard Karn – Wikipedia

American actor, comedian, author and former game show host

Richard Karn

Richard Karn 2015.jpg

Karn in 2015

Born

Richard Karn Wilson

(1956-02-17) February 17, 1956 (age 64)

Occupation
  • Actor
  • comedian
  • author
  • game show host
Years active 1989–present
Spouse(s)
Children 1
Parent(s) Louise Wilson
Gene Wilson

Richard Karn Wilson (born February 17, 1956) is an American actor, comedian, author and former game show host. He starred as Al Borland in the 1990s sitcom Home Improvement and was the fourth host of the game show Family Feud from 2002 to 2006.

Early life[edit]

Karn was born Richard Karn Wilson in Seattle, Washington. His father Gene was a Seabee who served in World War II. Richard graduated from Roosevelt High School and the University of Washington Professional Actor Training Program,[1] where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi. Karn also gained drama experience in Scotland at the Edinburgh Festival.

After earning his drama degree in 1979, Karn moved to New York City, where in less than one week he was hired to do a commercial for Michelob beer that was featured during Super Bowl XIV. When he joined the Screen Actors Guild, he was informed there was already a Richard Wilson, prompting him to drop his last name.[2]

In 1989, his wife Tudi convinced him to move to Los Angeles. He found a place for them to live by managing an apartment complex, catering events at a Jewish synagogue on the side. After receiving a traffic citation, Karn attended a traffic school and sat beside an agent who told him about casting for the new television show Home Improvement. The role of Al Borland had already been given to Stephen Tobolowsky, but when taping was scheduled, Tobolowsky was busy with another movie and the role had to be recast. Karn was a guest star in the pilot episode but became a regular cast member when the show was picked up by the network.[2][3]

In 2002, Karn replaced Louie Anderson as the fourth host of the game show Family Feud. Karn left Family Feud in 2006 and was replaced by John O’Hurley.[4][5]

In 2002, Karn made an appearance in The Strokes’ music video for “Someday”, which featured segments of the band on a fictional showing of Family Feud against the band Guided by Voices.

On October 6, 2008, Karn replaced Patrick Duffy as host of Game Show Network’s Bingo America.[6][5] Karn served as a substitute host on GSN Radio.

Karn did commercials for Orchard Supply Hardware in the 1990s.[7]

Personal life[edit]

Karn has been married to actress Tudi Roche, since 1985.[2] Together they have a son, named Cooper.[2]

In August 2020, news reports stated that Richard Karn died, despite a report from Microsoft News stating the contrary. However, Karn later stated on Twitter that he was alive and well.[8]

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Television[edit]

Year Title
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